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Similarly services and components are not called directly; instead a Spring configuration file defines which services and components must be called. This IoC is intended to increase the ease of maintenance and testing. The Spring Framework has its own Aspect-oriented programming AOP framework that modularizes cross-cutting concerns in aspects. The motivation for creating a separate AOP framework comes from the belief that it should be possible to provide basic AOP features without too much complexity in either design, implementation, or configuration.

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The Spring AOP framework is proxy pattern-based , and is configured at run time. This removes the need for a compilation step or load-time weaving. On the other hand, interception only allows for public method-execution on existing objects at a join point. Spring 1. Spring 2. Further, Spring 2. Spring AOP has been designed to make it able to work with cross-cutting concerns inside the Spring Framework. Any object which is created and configured by the container can be enriched using Spring AOP.

The Spring team decided not to introduce new AOP-related terminology; therefore, in the Spring reference documentation and API, terms such as aspect , join point, advice , pointcut, introduction, target object advised object , AOP proxy , and weaving all have the same meanings as in most other AOP frameworks particularly AspectJ.

Spring's data access framework addresses common difficulties developers face when working with databases in applications. All these features become available when using template classes provided by Spring for each supported framework. Critics have said these template classes are intrusive and offer no advantage over using for example the Hibernate API directly. This however requires transparent transaction management, as application code no longer assumes the responsibility to obtain and close database resources, and does not support exception translation. Together with Spring's transaction management, its data access framework offers a flexible abstraction for working with data access frameworks.

The Spring Framework is the only framework available in Java that offers managed data access environments outside of an application server or container. While using Spring for transaction management with Hibernate, the following beans may have to be configured:. Spring's transaction management framework brings an abstraction mechanism to the Java platform. Its abstraction is capable of:.

In comparison, Java Transaction API JTA only supports nested transactions and global transactions, and requires an application server and in some cases also deployment of applications in an application server. The Spring Framework ships a PlatformTransactionManager for a number of transaction management strategies:. Next to this abstraction mechanism the framework also provides two ways of adding transaction management to applications:.

Together with Spring's data access framework — which integrates the transaction management framework — it is possible to set up a transactional system through configuration without having to rely on JTA or EJB. The transactional framework also integrates with messaging and caching engines. The Spring Framework features its own model—view—controller MVC web application framework , which wasn't originally planned.

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The Spring developers decided to write their own Web framework as a reaction to what they perceived as the poor design of the then popular Jakarta Struts Web framework, [19] as well as deficiencies in other available frameworks. In particular, they felt there was insufficient separation between the presentation and request handling layers, and between the request handling layer and the model. The framework defines strategy interfaces for all of the responsibilities that must be handled by a modern request-based framework.

The goal of each interface is to be simple and clear so that it's easy for Spring MVC users to write their own implementations, if they so choose. MVC paves the way for cleaner front end code. All interfaces are tightly coupled to the Servlet API. This tight coupling to the Servlet API is seen by some as a failure on the part of the Spring developers to offer a high-level abstraction for Web-based applications [ citation needed ]. However, this coupling makes sure that the features of the Servlet API remain available to developers while offering a high abstraction framework to ease working with said API.

The DispatcherServlet class is the front controller [21] of the framework and is responsible for delegating control to the various interfaces during the execution phases of an HTTP request. The most important interfaces defined by Spring MVC, and their responsibilities, are listed below:. Each strategy interface above has an important responsibility in the overall framework. The abstractions offered by these interfaces are powerful, so to allow for a set of variations in their implementations, Spring MVC ships with implementations of all these interfaces and together offers a feature set on top of the Servlet API.

However, developers and vendors are free to write other implementations. Spring MVC uses the Java java.

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Map interface as a data-oriented abstraction for the Model where keys are expected to be string values. The ease of testing the implementations of these interfaces seems one important advantage of the high level of abstraction offered by Spring MVC. DispatcherServlet is tightly coupled to the Spring inversion of control container for configuring the web layers of applications. However, web applications can use other parts of the Spring Framework—including the container—and choose not to use Spring MVC.

Spring's Remote Access framework is an abstraction for working with various RPC remote procedure call -based technologies available on the Java platform both for client connectivity and marshalling objects on servers. The most important feature offered by this framework is to ease configuration and usage of these technologies as much as possible by combining inversion of control and AOP. The framework also provides fault-recovery automatic reconnection after connection failure and some optimizations for client-side use of EJB remote stateless session beans.

Both client and server setup for all RPC-style protocols and products supported by the Spring Remote access framework except for the Apache Axis support is configured in the Spring Core container. There is alternative open-source implementation Cluster4Spring of a remoting subsystem included into Spring Framework that is intended to support various schemes of remoting , 1-many, dynamic services discovering …. Spring Boot is Spring's convention-over-configuration solution for creating stand-alone, production-grade Spring-based Applications that you can "just run".

Most Spring Boot applications need very little Spring configuration.

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Spring Roo is a community project which provides an alternative, code-generation based approach at using convention-over-configuration to rapidly build applications in Java. Roo differs from other rapid application development frameworks by focusing on:. Spring Batch is a framework for batch processing that provides reusable functions that are essential in processing large volumes of records, including:. Now let's add a dependency and see how quickly we can get something in a browser. We've used spring-boot-starter-web to bring in several dependencies that are useful for building web applications.

Next we'll create a route handler for a URL path. The class whose job it is to field URL requests is known as a controller , as shown in Listing 8. The Controller annotation identifies a class as a controller. A class marked as a controller is also automatically identified as a component class, which makes it a candidate for auto-wiring. Wherever this controller is needed, it will be plugged into the framework. In this case, we'll plug it into the MVC system to handle requests. The controller is a specialized kind of component. It supports the RequestMapping and ResponseBody annotations that you see on the hi method.

These annotations tell the framework how to map URL requests to the app. At this point, you can run the app with mvn spring-boot:run. Notice how Spring has taken the basics of autowiring components, and delivered a whole web framework. With Spring, you don't have to explicitly connect anything together! Options include defining the HTTP method you want, which is what we've done in this case.

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The RequestParam argument annotation allows us to map the request parameters directly into the method signature, including requiring certain params and defining default values as we've done here. We can even map a request body to a class with the RequestBody argument annotation. The response will then be automatically packaged as JSON. In this case you'll return an object from the method. Dependency injection and inversion of control Spring's core idea is that instead of managing object relationships yourself, you offload them to the framework. Since these two concepts are related but different, let's consider them more closely: Inversion of control IOC does just what its name says: it inverts the traditional hierarchy of control for fulfilling object relationships.

Instead of relying on application code to define how objects relate to each other, relationships are defined by the framework. As a methodology, IOC introduces consistency and predictability to object relations, but it does require you, as the developer, to give up some fine-grained control.

Dependency injection DI is a mechanism where the framework "injects" dependencies into your app. It's the practical implementation of IOC. Dependency injection hinges on polymorphism , in the sense that it allows the fulfillment of a reference type to change based on configurations in the framework. The framework injects variable references rather than having them manually fulfilled in application code.

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Example 1: Spring dependency injection Inversion of control and dependency injection are best understood by using them, so we'll start with a quick programming example. Listing 1. Listing 2. Modeling classes and objects in Spring Now let's look at the same example in Spring. Listing 3. Next, consider the Component annotation, shown in Listing 4.